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What are the physical properties of titanium?

Update:2021-01-18
Abstract:

 Titanium has metallic luster and ductility. The densit […]

 Titanium has metallic luster and ductility. The density is 4.5 g/cm3. Melting point is 1660±10℃. The boiling point is 3287°C. The valences are +2, +3 and +4. The ionization energy is 6.82 electron volts. The main characteristics of titanium are low density, high mechanical strength and easy processing. The plasticity of titanium mainly depends on purity. The purer the titanium, the greater the plasticity. It has good corrosion resistance and is not affected by the atmosphere and sea water. At room temperature, it will not be corroded by hydrochloric acid below 7%, sulfuric acid below 5%, nitric acid, aqua regia or dilute alkali solution; only hydrofluoric acid, concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, etc. can act on it. Titanium is an important alloying element in steel and alloys. The density of titanium is 4.506-4.516 g/cc (20°C), which is higher than aluminum but lower than iron, copper, and nickel. But the specific strength is at the top of the metal. [8] The melting point is 1668±4°C, the latent heat of fusion is 3.7-5.0 kcal/gram atom, the boiling point is 3260±20°C, the latent heat of vaporization is 102.5-112.5 kcal/gram atom, the critical temperature is 4350°C, and the critical pressure is 1130 atmospheres.

Titanium has poor thermal and electrical conductivity, which is similar to or slightly lower than stainless steel. High Purity Titanium has superconductivity. The superconducting critical temperature of pure titanium is 0.38-0.4K. At 25°C, the heat capacity of titanium is 0.126 cal/g [9] atom·degree, enthalpy is 1149 cal/g atom, and entropy is 7.33 cal/g atom·degree. Titanium is a paramagnetic substance with a magnetic permeability of 1.00004 . Titanium has plasticity. The elongation of high-purity titanium can reach 50-60%, and the reduction of area can reach 70-80%, but the shrinkage strength is low (that is, the strength generated during shrinkage). The presence of impurities in titanium has a great influence on its mechanical properties, especially interstitial impurities (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) can greatly increase the strength of titanium and significantly reduce its plasticity. The good mechanical properties of titanium as a structural material are achieved by strictly controlling the appropriate impurity content and adding alloy elements.

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