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What are the cutting characteristics of titanium alloys?

Update:2021-05-06
Abstract:

When the hardness of High Purity Titanium Alloy is grea […]

When the hardness of High Purity Titanium Alloy is greater than HB350, it is particularly difficult to cut. But the hardness of titanium alloy is only one aspect that is difficult to cut. The key lies in the influence of the combination of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of titanium alloy on its machinability. Titanium alloy has the following cutting characteristics:
(1) Small deformation coefficient: This is a significant feature of titanium alloy cutting processing, and the deformation coefficient is less than or close to 1. The sliding friction distance of chips on the rake face is greatly increased, which accelerates tool wear.
(2) High cutting temperature: Because the thermal conductivity of titanium alloy is very small (only equivalent to 1/5 to 1/7 of 45 steel), the contact length between the chip and the rake face is extremely short, and the heat generated during cutting is not easy to transfer It is concentrated in a small area near the cutting area and the cutting edge, and the cutting temperature is very high. Under the same cutting conditions, the cutting temperature can be more than twice as high as when cutting No. 45 steel.
(3) The cutting force per unit area is large: the main cutting force is about 20% smaller than when cutting steel. Because the contact length between the chip and the rake face is extremely short, the cutting force per unit contact area is greatly increased, which is likely to cause chipping. At the same time, due to the small modulus of elasticity of titanium alloy, it is prone to bending deformation under the action of radial force during processing, causing vibration, increasing tool wear and affecting the accuracy of parts. Therefore, the process system is required to have good rigidity.
(4) Chilling phenomenon is serious: due to the high chemical activity of titanium, it is easy to absorb oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form a hard and brittle skin at high cutting temperatures; at the same time, plastic deformation during cutting will also cause surface hardening . Chilling phenomenon not only reduces the fatigue strength of parts, but also aggravates tool wear, which is a very important feature when cutting titanium alloys.

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